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Research Configuration Research configuration was leveraged by previous literature review that allowed the creation of an interview agenda to support and lead discussions with practitioners IT service managers.

The interactivity of the method chosen as opposed to what would happen in a quantitative methodology also afforded enough flexibility to discuss interesting or unexpected topics that emerged during the conversation, allowing richer data to be obtained.

Research configuration was developed to allow the analysis of multiple case studies. One of the reasons that Yin indicates a preference towards multiple case studies is that external validity can be strengthened, depending upon the results.

Replication logic is sought in the selection of the sampled cases. Cases that are seen to be different are iteratively compared and contrasted.

As recommended by Eisenhardt K. Participants and Cases Analysed The authors analysed a set of seven cases developed by a major Portuguese provider of IT Outsourcing services.

All interviews followed the same protocol. Each IT Outsourcing deal was analysed for the occurrence or non-occurrence of the constructs under investigation, contract reports and interview sessions with service managers, which lasted between one hour and half to two hours.

Notes and audio recorded discussions were transcribed for analysis. Data collection by the authors was carried out for seven months, between and However, as they had the unique opportunity to study real cases, the results may be used to identify common patterns with future formal modelling to validate these patterns Lee, Table 2 presents the lines of direct costs identified, in which the type of cost is clearly defined as fixed or variable as well as the nature of cost as CAPEX or OPEX.

A short description of the cost line is provided. The explanation is that costs will be fixed if the provider is able to foresee the governance, SLAs and penalties costs, based on contract configuration.

If not, both costs are variable. However, according to the provider, the variance in effort of governance model meetings, escalation process, reporting , SLAs and penalties costs are not billed to the customer.

However, despite the SLAs limits, customer pressure increases via formal and informal channels and many times we have to augment our response capacity.

Consequently, we have to deliver a higher SLA with no financial retribution, but if we fail on the SLA, the customer demands the penalty.

This could be minimized if the concept of bonus was accepted by customers, but until today none of our contracts has that concept implemented.

Table 5. Environmental Factors with Impact on Costs Developed by Authors Environmental Factors Description Organizational Culture The need to adapt to the customer's organizational culture Geoghraphic distribution The location of customer sites will determine higher or lower variance in costs Country Culture The need to adapt to customer country culture Multilingual Support The need of multilingual support can set higher or lower costs The provider used in this research is nationwide in Portugal, which allows it to have access to different labour costs in different cities, for instance between Lisbon and Oporto.

Additionally, the provider stated that an IT Outsourcing contract configuration is also based on several types of professionals with different labour costs.

This is due mostly to experience, knowledge and time of hiring, since professionals hired before are more expensive than professionals hired after that date.

Table 6 shows the factors inherent to labour. Table 6. Labour Factors with Impact on Costs Developed by Authors Labour Factors Labour Market Factors Labour Time Horizon Description The use of low labour countries or regions, where the services provided will set higher or lower costs of human resources Human resources can be hired for different periods of time, with different costs Permanent, Contract Labour Type of Contract Human resources can be hired for different types of contract, with different costs Permanent, Contract, Project, Task Labour Date of Hire Many IT professionals who were hired in the past earned higher salaries than they do today.

This factor directly influences cost and team building Another issue that has impact on costs is the use of capital expenditure CAPEX with specific amortization periods, which are essentially related with equipment and software licensing.

In many cases the equipment is owned by the provider, by the customer or even a mixed configuration.

For example, the software might belong to the customer, but the hardware to the provider. Additionally, size makes metrics worse, because it is assumed that large contracts benefit from scale effect, but in general they are also more complex, which increases management time and costs.

Table 7 identifies the demand as a factor with impact on costs. However, in general the provider charges the customer for extra services.

Table 7. Second, Hidden costs group in Table 3,which can be divided into three sub- groups, transactional costs associated with contract governance that include monitoring paperwork reporting requirements.

These costs are often assigned to overhead accounts, rather than allocated to products departments directly.

Contingent costs associated to penalties, fines and future liabilities are costs that may or may not be incurred at some point in the future.

Examples of this are penalties for underperformed service level agreements and future remediation costs.

Intangible costs, like corporate image, community and consumer relations, are difficult to estimate and are associated with maintaining corporate image, good relationships with investors, employees and customers, among others.

Demand costs group, in Table 7, is presented as a factor with impact on costs and revenue. The provider needs to answer market demand and to do that, a supply chain needs to be prepared.

The analysed cases showed that approximate costs are calculated for the full contract duration at market prices when the provider intends to sign the contract, allocating the resources to answer customer requirements and using the same approach described by Brealey for investment projects.

In this study, the comparison between contracts shows that IT Outsourcing contracts have a common cost structure grounded on direct and indirect costs that are adapted for every contract based on scope, but the concept of cost driver is not used.

Findings In order to obtain the answers to the aforementioned questions, the authors mapped the results with literature review. The results are shown in the following paragraphs.

In order to take full advantage of IT Outsourcing services, customers need to know their objectives, systems and knowhow to manage IT services in order to decide what to outsource, how to outsource, in what degree and for how long.

For the provider, each IT Outsourcing contract has unique aspects that are difficult to measure and price.

Given the range of possibilities, it is not usually simple to identify the exact cost structure and which cost drivers must be measured during the Outsourcing life cycle in order to have standard performance indicators across different IT Outsourcing contracts.

The authors identified that cost allocation is driven by the requirements of financial cost reporting. The present research shows that cost methodology is based on standard costing with the identification of direct costs in labour and assets, which tends to be the most significant cost category in service organizations, also stated by Horngren In addition, there is the use of overhead costs, which are then divided arithmetically by the number of tickets per contract.

This approach with aggregated standard costing connected with financial statements should be limited in favour of using costing methodologies that focus on closer connections to operational realities in terms of cause-and-effect relationships that convert its inputs into outputs and outcomes, and which are essential to the effective use of costing to support business decisions IFAC, However, the authors focus on partitioning demand through appointment scheduling; publication of pricing incentives and promoting off-peak demand through service catalogue and request management, also referred to by Addy , p.

Some problems can be solved by better training, better products, better innovation and automated-response systems while others depend on shaping the behavior of customers for instance, by offering tools and guidance to help them solve problems themselves, like an IT knowledge base Addy, , p.

On the opposite side of demand, the provider needs to manage supply in order to be able to execute cost optimization. For that, it is necessary to distinguish between value-added costs and non-value-added costs in task execution.

On the one hand, a value-added cost is the cost of an activity that cannot be eliminated without affecting a service value to the customer.

On the other hand, non-value added costs need to be minimized, since there are costs that can be eliminated without affecting the service value to the customer.

An example of an approach to eliminate non-value added costs is a just-in-time JIT or activitybased costing ABC , initially developed for products, but also applicable to services.

Nowadays, providers and customers are moving to outsourcing cloud services Tramacere, to allow standardization of operating environments. Standardization can be done on several dimensions: increasing customer participation through service catalogue and self-care platforms Addy, , pp.

The provider mentioned that the type of cloud used in IT Outsourcing contracts is mainly based on a private cloud, also stated by Lageschulte et al.

By cross training employees, the work force becomes more flexible because people can be transferred with less retraining. Service level agreements SLAs also contribute to cost variance because they vary among contracts, and customers tend to demand more responsiveness from the provider, even with service levels agreed and contracted.

Conclusion IT Outsourcing contracts need specific metrics and cost drivers to be consistent throughout the entire life cycle.

As shown above, every contract is different. If control mechanisms are not in place, the necessary tasks can be done with extra labour not accounted or billed to customer, as identified earlier in the research.

The findings strongly establish the importance of understanding the different types of factors that contribute to variance in IT Outsourcing contracts, since each customer's environment has unique aspects that are difficult to measure and standardize.

Thus, to minimize cost variance, providers should work on three major groups. Firstly, cost allocation and management.

Selecting the most appropriate methodology IFAC, will allow the provider to manage resources identifiable and measurable; charge policies and procedures; link to service level agreement; and automate reporting.

In addition, providers must consider that the primary emphasis of a cost system should be to provide relevant and reliable information for management decision making, rather than focusing only on financial reporting requirements.

Thirdly, managing flexible demand with appropriate indicators historic and predictive could allow a better preparation of supply infrastructure, since services are produced and consumed simultaneously.

As a result, time is an important dimension to consider in the production of services. Finally, managing demand and supply; providers can standardize environments in order to more effectively optimize and manage human and technical resources.

Albeit knowing that IT Outsourcing contracts are in the spectrum of high cost to serve with highly customized services, providers must find a set of common processes between contracts to allow the optimization of operations.

Study Limitations and Future Research The work developed so far would benefit from a broad empirical study with more providers so as to test and enrich the findings.

In the future, it would be interesting to do a longitudinal study in a set of providers to analyse the evolution of cost accounting systems like ABC or RCA and the use of IT frameworks in an adverse market, such as in recessions like what is currently happening today in Portugal, Spain and other countries in Europe.

Another interesting research theme would be to analyse the evolution of standardization offer in IT services Tramacere, and the acceptance from IT Outsourcing customers, since the main driver for customization are the customer needs.

Additionally, it would be interesting to analyse the level of hidden costs supported by labour force in IT Outsourcing contracts.

References Addy, R. Ang, S. Hirschheim, A. Berlim: Springer Verlag. New York: Mcgraw Hill. Eisenhardt, K. Brown, D. The Black Book of Outsourcing.

Bryman, A. For example, by default Minix 3 uses the US keyboard keymap. The Minix 3 images you are using in LCOM use a "handcrafted" Portuguese keymap, because Minix 3 does not include any in its distribution.

The advantage of this approach is clear for keyboard manufacturers: a key in a given position, always generates the same scandcode, independently of whether the keyboard uses the US layout or another layout.

Furthermore, the scancode generated when a key is pressed is different from the scancode generated when that key is released.

To distinguish between them, we call the former make code and the latter break code. Usually, the break code of a key differs from the make code of that key in that the MSB of a break code is set whereas that of the make code is not.

For example, the make code of the ESC key is 0x01 whereas its break code is 0x Using different make and break codes provides a lot of flexibility.

For example, a keyboard needs not generate a different scancode for a key when the Shift key is pressed. Rather, it generates a make code for Shift and it is then up to the keyboard driver to do the necessary mapping between the reception of the Shift make code and the reception of its break code.

Most PC's scancodes are one byte long, although some special keys have longer scan codes.

Two-byte long scancodes usually use 0xE0 as their first byte. This prefix is used in both the make and the break codes. Again, the difference between the make and the break codes of a key is in the MSB, now of the second byte of the scancode.

Some keyboards have keys that generate even longer scancodes, but you need not worry about it in LCOM. The scancodes that we have described are known as Set 1.

However, the KBC can be programmed to translate Set 2 scancodes, received from the keyboard, to Set 1 scancodes, so that the keyboard device drivers need only know about Set 1 scancodes.

Minix 3 keyboard driver configures the KBC to translate Set 2 scancodes, thus, as long as you do not change the KBC configuration in that respect, your code needs to handle only Set 1 scancodes.

In modern PCs the communication between the keyboard and the processor is mediated by an electronic component that provides the functionality of the i, the keyboard controller KBC.

The communication between the KBC and the keyboard actually, a microprocessor embedded in the keyboard is by means of a serial communication protocol that is not the object of this lab.

In this lab, you need only to interface with the "i", which was thoroughly described in class. In addition to read the class notes.

There are several other resources on the Web, including those mentioned in the class notes. You may wish to take a look at these, if you find the material I wrote insufficient.

Minix 3 Notes. When Minix 3 boots, its terminal driver configures the KBC and installs its own keyboard interrupt handler. This way, users are able to login to Minix and use the different virtual terminals.

On one hand this is great: you do not need to configure the KBC. On the other hand this raises an issue: how can your code read the scancodes?

A solution to this issue, is for your driver to subscribe the KBC interrupts, as described in Section 5. As a result, the standard Minix 3 KBC interrupt handler will not be notified of the occurrence of KBC interrupts, thus preventing it from interfering with your code.

Both the KBC and the keyboard may take some time to respond to a command. For example, IBM's specification of the i requires the keyboard to respond to a command in 20 ms.

Thus your code should not expect to get a response immediately after issuing a command. A simple approach is for your code to wait indefinitely, or until the KBC reports a time-out.

A more fault-tolerant approach is for your code to give enough-time for the KBC or the keyboard to respond, retry a few times on time-out, and finally give up.

Given that the time intervals to consider are in the order of tens of ms, it is not appropriate to use sleep.

Instead, you can use the function tickdelay of Minix 3's libsys as follows:. This function is similar to sleep in that it blocks the process that executes it for the time interval specified in its argument.

After that time interval, the process resumes execution by executing the instruction that follows tickdelay. Testing Code.

So that we can grade your work, you are required to implement the following testing functions. We will develop the code that will call them, so make sure that your implementation matches their prototypes.

The purpose of this function is to test that your code is able to read the scancodes from the KBC using an interrupt handler.

Thus, it should first subscribe the KBC interrupts, as described in the previous section. Then it should print the scancodes on the console, indicating whether or not the scancode is a make or a break code.

For the reasons described in the previous section, it should cancel the subscription of the KBC interrupt before terminating.

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The provider needs to answer market demand and to do that, a supply chain needs to be prepared. The analysed cases showed that approximate costs are calculated for the full contract duration at market prices when the provider intends to sign the contract, allocating the resources to answer customer requirements and using the same approach described by Brealey for investment projects.

In this study, the comparison between contracts shows that IT Outsourcing contracts have a common cost structure grounded on direct and indirect costs that are adapted for every contract based on scope, but the concept of cost driver is not used.

Findings In order to obtain the answers to the aforementioned questions, the authors mapped the results with literature review.

The results are shown in the following paragraphs. In order to take full advantage of IT Outsourcing services, customers need to know their objectives, systems and knowhow to manage IT services in order to decide what to outsource, how to outsource, in what degree and for how long.

For the provider, each IT Outsourcing contract has unique aspects that are difficult to measure and price.

Given the range of possibilities, it is not usually simple to identify the exact cost structure and which cost drivers must be measured during the Outsourcing life cycle in order to have standard performance indicators across different IT Outsourcing contracts.

The authors identified that cost allocation is driven by the requirements of financial cost reporting. The present research shows that cost methodology is based on standard costing with the identification of direct costs in labour and assets, which tends to be the most significant cost category in service organizations, also stated by Horngren In addition, there is the use of overhead costs, which are then divided arithmetically by the number of tickets per contract.

This approach with aggregated standard costing connected with financial statements should be limited in favour of using costing methodologies that focus on closer connections to operational realities in terms of cause-and-effect relationships that convert its inputs into outputs and outcomes, and which are essential to the effective use of costing to support business decisions IFAC, However, the authors focus on partitioning demand through appointment scheduling; publication of pricing incentives and promoting off-peak demand through service catalogue and request management, also referred to by Addy , p.

Some problems can be solved by better training, better products, better innovation and automated-response systems while others depend on shaping the behavior of customers for instance, by offering tools and guidance to help them solve problems themselves, like an IT knowledge base Addy, , p.

On the opposite side of demand, the provider needs to manage supply in order to be able to execute cost optimization.

For that, it is necessary to distinguish between value-added costs and non-value-added costs in task execution. On the one hand, a value-added cost is the cost of an activity that cannot be eliminated without affecting a service value to the customer.

On the other hand, non-value added costs need to be minimized, since there are costs that can be eliminated without affecting the service value to the customer.

An example of an approach to eliminate non-value added costs is a just-in-time JIT or activitybased costing ABC , initially developed for products, but also applicable to services.

Nowadays, providers and customers are moving to outsourcing cloud services Tramacere, to allow standardization of operating environments.

Standardization can be done on several dimensions: increasing customer participation through service catalogue and self-care platforms Addy, , pp.

The provider mentioned that the type of cloud used in IT Outsourcing contracts is mainly based on a private cloud, also stated by Lageschulte et al.

By cross training employees, the work force becomes more flexible because people can be transferred with less retraining.

Service level agreements SLAs also contribute to cost variance because they vary among contracts, and customers tend to demand more responsiveness from the provider, even with service levels agreed and contracted.

Conclusion IT Outsourcing contracts need specific metrics and cost drivers to be consistent throughout the entire life cycle.

As shown above, every contract is different. If control mechanisms are not in place, the necessary tasks can be done with extra labour not accounted or billed to customer, as identified earlier in the research.

The findings strongly establish the importance of understanding the different types of factors that contribute to variance in IT Outsourcing contracts, since each customer's environment has unique aspects that are difficult to measure and standardize.

Thus, to minimize cost variance, providers should work on three major groups. Firstly, cost allocation and management. Selecting the most appropriate methodology IFAC, will allow the provider to manage resources identifiable and measurable; charge policies and procedures; link to service level agreement; and automate reporting.

In addition, providers must consider that the primary emphasis of a cost system should be to provide relevant and reliable information for management decision making, rather than focusing only on financial reporting requirements.

Thirdly, managing flexible demand with appropriate indicators historic and predictive could allow a better preparation of supply infrastructure, since services are produced and consumed simultaneously.

As a result, time is an important dimension to consider in the production of services. Finally, managing demand and supply; providers can standardize environments in order to more effectively optimize and manage human and technical resources.

Albeit knowing that IT Outsourcing contracts are in the spectrum of high cost to serve with highly customized services, providers must find a set of common processes between contracts to allow the optimization of operations.

Study Limitations and Future Research The work developed so far would benefit from a broad empirical study with more providers so as to test and enrich the findings.

In the future, it would be interesting to do a longitudinal study in a set of providers to analyse the evolution of cost accounting systems like ABC or RCA and the use of IT frameworks in an adverse market, such as in recessions like what is currently happening today in Portugal, Spain and other countries in Europe.

Another interesting research theme would be to analyse the evolution of standardization offer in IT services Tramacere, and the acceptance from IT Outsourcing customers, since the main driver for customization are the customer needs.

Additionally, it would be interesting to analyse the level of hidden costs supported by labour force in IT Outsourcing contracts.

References Addy, R. Ang, S. Hirschheim, A. Berlim: Springer Verlag. New York: Mcgraw Hill. Eisenhardt, K. Brown, D.

The Black Book of Outsourcing. Bryman, A. Evans, P. Burke, J. Clark, T. Cronin, B. Illinois: Univ.

Illinois Graduate School. Cullen, S. Dibbern, J. Earl, M. Fitzsimmons, J. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. Goo, J. Gorman, G.

London, UK: Facet Publishing. Hammond, J. Hancox, M. Hirschheim, R. Horngren, C. Jensen, M. Jick, T. Kaplan, R. Kotler, P. Lacity, M. Lageschulte, P.

Lee, A. Luecke, R. Harvard Business Essentials. Miranda, S. Morden, T. Principles of Strategic Management, 3rd ed. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Poppo, L. Porter, M. Quinn, J. Tramacere, G. Ward, J. Strategic Planning for Information Systems, 2nd ed.

Welsch, G. Budgeting: Profit Planning and Control, 5th ed. Prentice Hall. Chichester: Wiley. Some keyboards have keys that generate even longer scancodes, but you need not worry about it in LCOM.

The scancodes that we have described are known as Set 1. However, the KBC can be programmed to translate Set 2 scancodes, received from the keyboard, to Set 1 scancodes, so that the keyboard device drivers need only know about Set 1 scancodes.

Minix 3 keyboard driver configures the KBC to translate Set 2 scancodes, thus, as long as you do not change the KBC configuration in that respect, your code needs to handle only Set 1 scancodes.

In modern PCs the communication between the keyboard and the processor is mediated by an electronic component that provides the functionality of the i, the keyboard controller KBC.

The communication between the KBC and the keyboard actually, a microprocessor embedded in the keyboard is by means of a serial communication protocol that is not the object of this lab.

In this lab, you need only to interface with the "i", which was thoroughly described in class. In addition to read the class notes.

There are several other resources on the Web, including those mentioned in the class notes. You may wish to take a look at these, if you find the material I wrote insufficient.

Minix 3 Notes. When Minix 3 boots, its terminal driver configures the KBC and installs its own keyboard interrupt handler. This way, users are able to login to Minix and use the different virtual terminals.

On one hand this is great: you do not need to configure the KBC. On the other hand this raises an issue: how can your code read the scancodes?

A solution to this issue, is for your driver to subscribe the KBC interrupts, as described in Section 5. As a result, the standard Minix 3 KBC interrupt handler will not be notified of the occurrence of KBC interrupts, thus preventing it from interfering with your code.

Both the KBC and the keyboard may take some time to respond to a command. For example, IBM's specification of the i requires the keyboard to respond to a command in 20 ms.

Thus your code should not expect to get a response immediately after issuing a command. A simple approach is for your code to wait indefinitely, or until the KBC reports a time-out.

A more fault-tolerant approach is for your code to give enough-time for the KBC or the keyboard to respond, retry a few times on time-out, and finally give up.

Given that the time intervals to consider are in the order of tens of ms, it is not appropriate to use sleep. Instead, you can use the function tickdelay of Minix 3's libsys as follows:.

This function is similar to sleep in that it blocks the process that executes it for the time interval specified in its argument.

After that time interval, the process resumes execution by executing the instruction that follows tickdelay.

Testing Code. So that we can grade your work, you are required to implement the following testing functions.

We will develop the code that will call them, so make sure that your implementation matches their prototypes.

The purpose of this function is to test that your code is able to read the scancodes from the KBC using an interrupt handler. Thus, it should first subscribe the KBC interrupts, as described in the previous section.

Then it should print the scancodes on the console, indicating whether or not the scancode is a make or a break code.

For the reasons described in the previous section, it should cancel the subscription of the KBC interrupt before terminating.

If you do not cancel the subscription of the KBC interrupt, Minix's keyboard interrupt handler will not be notified of interrupts on the keyboard and therefore you will not be able to use any of the virtual terminals on the virtual machine.

However, you will be able to use the command line interface CLI via a remote shell, for example on a Linux terminal, or in Eclipse.

The remote shell uses the keyboard on a system different from Minix. The purpose of this function is to test your code that changes the state of the keyboard indicator LEDs.

Its arguments are an array toggle and n. Each element of toggle specifies which indicator LED should have its state toggled.

For example if toggle 's elements are 0,1,1,1,1,0. After processing all elements of the toggle array, your function should exit.

Compiling your Program. Follow the procedure described for the last lab of course now you should use directory lab4 instead of directory lab3 , but do not forget to modify the Makefile.

Unless you use privileged functions that are not really necessary, the following entry is enough:. As you complete the different milestones of this lab, you should commit your work to the SVN repository in Redmine.

Note that SVN is able to keep the different versions of your code. Remember that you have a tolerance of only 5 minutes at the end of your class.

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