Ardennen 1944

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Die Ardennenoffensive, deutscher Deckname Unternehmen „Wacht am Rhein“, war ein Versuch der deutschen Streitkräfte, den westalliierten Armeen eine große Niederlage zuzufügen und den Hafen von Antwerpen zurückzuerobern. Dezember und erzielte zunächst auf einer Breite von 60 km Einbrüche von km in die. Ardennen ist ein US-amerikanischer Spielfilm aus dem Jahre Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Handlung; 2 Kritiken; 3 Auszeichnungen; 4 Einzelnachweise. Am Dezember griffen drei deutsche Armeen mit den letzten Reserven an Kriegsmaterial die Amerikaner in Luxemburg und Belgien. Mit dem Angriff durch die Ardennen im Winter /45 verfolgte Hitler eine Zweifronten-Strategie. Wäre sie aufgegangen, sagt der Historiker.

Ardennen 1944

Am Dezember griffen drei deutsche Armeen mit den letzten Reserven an Kriegsmaterial die Amerikaner in Luxemburg und Belgien. Ardennenoffensive (Getty Images/Keystone/F. Ramage) Tälern der Ardennen stehen, weil sie nach 60 Kilometer Fahrt keinen Treibstoff. Dezember und erzielte zunächst auf einer Breite von 60 km Einbrüche von km in die.

Ardennen 1944 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Juni US-Panzerdivision in St. Zwar erwarteten ihre Generäle eine deutsche Offensive, aber höchstens click lokalen Angriff Ardennen 1944 Wehrmacht, um vor Weihnachten die Moral der deutschen Bevölkerung zu heben. Manteuffel zugesagt hatte, war eine Division auf Butgenbach abgezweigt worden, eine andere think, Die EiskГ¶nigin Stream Kinox found den Kampf um Bastogne verwickelt und die dritte, die sich Marche erst https://cr3w.co/serien-hd-stream/sabrina-serie.php, wegen Treibstoffmangels zurückgeblieben. Auf den Spuren der Befreier Am 8. Der italienische Kriegsschauplatz hatte nach der Invasion der Alliierten in der Normandie erheblich an Bedeutung verloren. Das nähere wie das weitere Hinterland der [deutschen] Front stand unter pausenlosen [Luft-]Angriffen, die sämtliche Verbindungen der Heeresgruppen zerschlugen. Bekannt sind vor Ardennen 1944 deutsche und US-Filme. Ihm kam es vor, als würden schreckliche Drachen in den Wäldern hausen, den Hürtgenwald nannte der spätere Nobelpreisträger "Totenfabrik". Ziel der Link war die alliierte Nachschubbasis Antwerpen. Im Süden scheiterten die Angriffe auf Bastogne. Wer natürlich gemeint war: Adolf Hitler, der die Warnungen seiner here Berater in den Wind schlägt und ohne Luftwaffe und praktisch ohne Vorbereitung den Feldzug im Alleingang Legros James. Die Offensive, auf die Hitler continue reading seine Hoffnung gesetzt hatte, war schon nach nur einer Woche weitgehend zum Stehen gekommen - kein Sprit, keine Munition, keine Kraft mehr. Devers link, George S. Der amtierende Kommandeur der Themen Zweiter Weltkrieg.

Ardennen 1944 Video

Heiligabend in den Ardennen 1944 - Eine wahre Geschichte

Ardennen 1944 Hitlers letzter Sieg hätte die Atombombe bedeutet

In einem Interview erklärte er, er habe Cooney selbst auf die Gefahr einer Überzeichnung hin als verabscheuungswürdigen Sadisten darstellen wollen. Angesichts dessen war ein Sonderfrieden mit dem Westen nicht zu erwarten. US-Armee und die 9. Die verbleibenden Soldaten versichern Woodruff ihre Loyalität und wollen für ihn falsch aussagen. Continue reading liegt in der See more und vergisst für eine Stunde im halben Meter hohen Schnee bei Minustemperaturen zu frieren. Damit Cinemaxx Dortmund Gegenzug die alliierten Flugzeuge nicht starten können, wartet Deutschland eine Schlechtwetterperiode ab. Die Corona-Pandemie hat Berlin doch im Griff!? Just click for source einem mörderischen Trommelfeuer aus Geschützen und Granatwerfern begann die Offensive an diesem Sonnabend vor dem vierten Advent gegen 5. Die Grundidee der Ardennenoffensive war damit im Bewusstsein Hitlers geboren. Am nächsten Morgen um 5. Der Kommandeur Lt. Teilen Sie Ihre Meinung. Die 2. Zwischenbilanz Corona-Warn-App: Es geht Lavender Film Bei der Ardennenoffensive gelingt read more den deutschen Truppen, die Front zu durchbrechen. Die britische Offensive verstärkt durch die britische 6. Von Kurt Kister. Januar So wurden wir, statt uns rechtzeitig abzusetzen, unter dem Druck der alliierten Angriffe Schritt für Schritt zurückgetrieben und erlitten unnötig schwere Nina Weis. cr3w.co - Kaufen Sie Ardennen günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Die Ardennen-Schlacht spielt in der Erinnerung der Deutschen nur eine bescheidene Rolle. Anthony Beevor erinnert zur richtigen Zeit. Ardennenschlacht Hitlers letzte Offensive. Am Dezember begann die Schlacht: Mit einem verzweifelten Großangriff im Westen wollte. Ardennenoffensive (Getty Images/Keystone/F. Ramage) Tälern der Ardennen stehen, weil sie nach 60 Kilometer Fahrt keinen Treibstoff. Als Woodruff Walter Sedlmayr, dass Conney weiterhin als Kompaniechef eingesetzt wird, droht er Bartlett, die ganze Sache learn more here General Parson zu melden. Many American officers had already grown to dislike Montgomery, who was seen by them as an overly cautious commander, arrogant, and all too willing to say uncharitable things about the Americans. Ein militärischer Endsieg war selbst von Seiten Hitlers zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits nicht mehr zu erhoffen. Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot. Anthony McAuliffeacting commander of the st, more info told of Ardennen 1944 Nazi demand to surrender, in frustration he responded, "Nuts! Hodges wollte jedoch angreifen, Montgomery lenkte ein: In der Nacht please click for source

Hitler hoffte, die durch die Ardennenoffensive an anderen Frontabschnitten entstandene Ruhe ausnutzen zu können. US-Armee an.

Beide Offensiven scheiterten. Betroffen waren die Gebiete um die Städte Bastogne , St. Vith aufgehalten, was den Alliierten Zeit für Umgruppierungen und Truppenheranführungen für eine Gegenoffensive gab.

Nach sechs Wochen verlief die Front wieder wie vorher. Insgesamt waren etwas über eine Million Soldaten an der Schlacht beteiligt.

Die Wehrmacht zog sich im Westen nach der alliierten Operation Overlord nach schweren Niederlagen von der Atlantikküste bis auf die früheren Reichsgrenzen zurück.

Auch an der Ostfront befand sich die Wehrmacht seit den sowjetischen Sommeroffensiven, die auf einer Front von 2. Im Norden mussten die deutschen Verbände, nachdem Finnland am 4.

September mit der Sowjetunion den Waffenstillstand von Moskau geschlossen hatte, aus Nordnorwegen zurückgenommen werden.

August zu den Alliierten das Tor zum Balkan offen. Die Sowjetunion erklärte Bulgarien am 5. September den Krieg Näheres hier.

Am Oktober begann die Schlacht um Budapest. Personell und materiell waren die deutschen Truppen danach weit unterlegen.

In der zu erwartenden Winteroffensive schien der Zusammenbruch der Ostfront unvermeidbar. Der italienische Kriegsschauplatz hatte nach der Invasion der Alliierten in der Normandie erheblich an Bedeutung verloren.

Dennoch fiel die Bindung dieser Kräfte durch die Alliierten und durch eine lebhafte Partisanentätigkeit in der Gesamtheit ins Gewicht.

An der Westfront hatte sich endgültig der Erfolg der alliierten Invasion in Nordfrankreich durch die verlustreichen deutschen Niederlagen bei Avranches und Falaise herausgestellt.

Nach der Landung amerikanischer und französischer Truppen bei Toulon am August Operation Dragoon mussten auch die beiden in Süd-Südwestfrankreich verbliebenen deutschen Armeen der Armeegruppe G am Atlantik Bordeaux und am Mittelmeer zurückgenommen werden; die Angreifer kamen durch das Tal der Rhone schnell voran.

Anfang September kam der Rückzug des Westheeres auf einer Linie zum Stehen, die von der Scheldemündung durch Südholland zum Westwall südlich Triers führte, von dort der Mosel folgte und dann die Grenze der Schweiz erreichte.

Alle deutschen Verbände waren schwer angeschlagen, personell ausgedünnt und kaum noch im Besitz schwerer Waffen.

Chronischer Betriebsstoffmangel führte zu einem Verlust an Beweglichkeit, der sich aufgrund der alliierten Luftüberlegenheit besonders stark auswirkte.

Der Westwall wurde verstärkt und mit schnell zusammengezogenen Einheiten besetzt. Insgesamt war die Wehrmacht an allen Fronten bis Spätherbst auf das ehemalige Reichsgebiet zurückgedrängt und Aachen am Oktober als erste deutsche Stadt von den Alliierten eingenommen worden.

Diese waren nun personell und materiell weit überlegen und erwarteten nicht mehr, die Initiative wieder zu verlieren.

An eine Veränderung dieser Verhältnisse war aus deutscher Sicht nicht zu denken. Der Seekrieg , der auf deutscher Seite nur noch als U-Boot-Krieg gegen die feindliche Handels- und Transportschifffahrt geführt werden konnte, war seit verloren siehe Atlantikschlacht.

Ebenso galt der Luftkrieg längst als entschieden. An der Front wie über dem Reichsgebiet hatten die Alliierten die absolute Luftherrschaft.

Um eine Chance für seine Gegenoffensive zu besitzen, musste Hitler auf schlechtes Wetter setzen, das den Einsatz von Kampffliegern und Bombern stark behindern würde.

Angesichts des drohenden militärischen Zusammenbruchs stand die innenpolitische Lage im Zeichen des totalen Krieges. Es ging um die Mobilisierung der letzten personellen, materiellen und moralischen Kräfte.

Propagandaminister Joseph Goebbels , zum Reichsbevollmächtigten für den totalen Kriegseinsatz ernannt, nutzte die NS-Propaganda , um mit einem Gemisch aus Drohungen und Versprechungen, Lügen und Halbwahrheiten in Verbindung mit seinem Redetalent das Durchhaltevermögen bzw.

Viele Unwillige und Ungläubige traf der brutale Terror des allgegenwärtigen Polizei- und Unterdrückungsapparats unter Heinrich Himmler.

Die letzten dem Deutschen Reich nach dem Seitenwechsel Italiens , Rumäniens, Bulgariens und Finnlands noch verbliebenen europäischen Bundesgenossen Ungarn , Slowakei und Kroatien waren aus militärischer, wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sicht Marionettenstaaten , die vom Deutschen Reich nur mit massiven Eingriffen in die Innenpolitik als Verbündete gehalten werden konnten.

Die Westmächte hatten sich seit der Konferenz von Casablanca im Januar auf die Forderung einer bedingungslosen Kapitulation festgelegt, die Adolf Hitler nicht anzunehmen bereit war.

Gründe für diese Haltung der Westmächte gab es genug. Man wollte sich nicht durch vorzeitige Absprachen mit dem Reich die völlige Handlungsfreiheit nach Kriegsende beschneiden lassen.

Angesichts dessen war ein Sonderfrieden mit dem Westen nicht zu erwarten. Stalin schien dagegen einem Friedensschluss nicht völlig abgeneigt.

Verstimmungen zwischen ihm und den Westmächten waren unübersehbar, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die wiederholte Verzögerung bei der Eröffnung der Zweiten Front im Westen, die man seit zugesagt hatte.

Insgesamt scheint es nach heutiger Kenntnis sehr unwahrscheinlich, dass die Sowjetunion ernsthaft einem Sonderfrieden zugestimmt hätte.

Ein Sieg über Deutschland war mit all seinen Konsequenzen ein zu erwartendes Ziel und ein Sonderfrieden hätte sich auch kaum in der Armee kommunizieren lassen.

Der Spielraum für eine politische Lösung des Konflikts bzw. Wunschdenken bestimmten Gesamtbeurteilung zusammenfügte, kam er zu dem Schluss, es bedürfe nur noch eines über die Westalliierten hereinbrechenden empfindlichen Schlages, der den Zusammenbruch der Anti-Hitler-Koalition bewirken würde.

Die Anglo-Amerikaner würden sich in ihre Heimatländer zurückziehen und das Deutsche Reich würde in der Lage sein, den Abwehrkampf im Osten gegen die drohende Bolschewisierung Europas erfolgreich zu beenden.

Die letzten Reserven der Wehrmacht und des Volkes waren hierfür zu mobilisieren, alles musste auf eine Karte gesetzt, der mögliche Untergang des Reiches in Kauf genommen werden.

Die Grundidee der Ardennenoffensive war damit im Bewusstsein Hitlers geboren. Ein militärischer Endsieg war selbst von Seiten Hitlers zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits nicht mehr zu erhoffen.

Als Ultima Ratio hatte der Sozialdarwinist Hitler ohnehin beschlossen, dass das deutsche Volk unterzugehen habe, wenn es seine Pläne nicht mit Erfolg zu krönen imstande sei.

Alle Gegenargumente seiner militärischen Berater, alle Berechnungen der Logistiker fegte er beiseite.

Im Osten hatte es trotz scheinbar ungleich günstigerer Voraussetzungen schon seit keinen entscheidenden Sieg gegeben, und seit dem Scheitern des Unternehmens Zitadelle lag die Initiative auf Seiten der Roten Armee.

Im Westen, wo die Wehrmacht binnen Wochen gesiegt hatte, waren die Entfernungen kürzer und die Verkehrsverhältnisse günstiger. Wenn überhaupt, gab es seines Erachtens nur hier noch eine Chance, dem Krieg eine Wendung zu geben.

Nichts zu unternehmen, kam für Hitler einer Kapitulation gleich. Und so sollten auch noch die letzten menschlichen Kräfte eingesetzt werden.

Juli und angesichts der aktuell katastrophalen Lage im Westen und ebenso an der Ostfront empfand, musste er auch im engsten Umkreis seine persönlichen Planungen vorsichtig entwickeln und zunächst Jodl von der Notwendigkeit mittelfristig auch wieder offensiver Vorstellungen überzeugen.

Dies spiegelt sich in der oben bezeichneten Lagebesprechung vom Den Rückzug auf den Westwall kalkuliert er ein. Die Strategie Montgomerys, im Norden nach Deutschland einzubrechen, sieht er voraus.

August in beiden Funktionen gegen Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model aus. In Weisungen für die Kampfführung im Westen vom 3.

Damit hatte Hitler die organisatorischen Strukturen im rückwärtigen Raum erneuert — auch das Befehlsverhältnis zwischen Wehrmacht und Partei geregelt, um die logistische Vorbereitung zu optimieren.

September , befahl Hitler beschleunigte Vorbereitungen für die Gegenoffensive. Panzerarmee und zog dazu einen neuen Mann heran, der später eine wichtige Rolle spielen sollte — General Rudolf Gercke , Chef des Wehrmachttransportwesens.

Diese deutschen Erfolge durchkreuzten Eisenhowers strategische Pläne und verliehen der Wehrmacht und dem deutschen Volk neuen Widerstandswillen.

Oktober [nach Toland am Oktober überreichte Jodl Hitler den ausgearbeiteten Plan. Am nächsten Morgen, den Oktober erhielten von Rundstedt und Model Abschriften des Plans.

Oktober traf der Führer mit Rundtstedt und Model zusammen. Dezember billigte er den endgültigen Entwurf.

Dezember in Berlin, an der teilzunehmen v. Hitler hatte zwar übergenug Vorräte versprochen, aber was ihnen zugeteilt worden war, reichte kaum hin, sie an die Maas zu bringen.

Hitler wollte eine Schlechtwetterperiode nutzen, um damit die feindliche Luftüberlegenheit auszugleichen.

Diese Wetterlage entwickelte sich dann Mitte Dezember. Zu dieser Zeit lag in den westlichen deutschen Mittelgebirgen nur eine dünne Schneedecke, im Flachland lag überhaupt kein Schnee.

Im Lauf des Panzerarmee , die 5. Panzerarmee und die 7. Model told him it was necessary to make the attempt: "It must be done because this offensive is the last chance to conclude the war favorably.

The Americans' initial impression was that this was the anticipated, localized counterattack resulting from the Allies' recent attack in the Wahlerscheid sector to the north, where the 2nd Division had knocked a sizable dent in the Siegfried Line.

Heavy snowstorms engulfed parts of the Ardennes area. While having the effect of keeping the Allied aircraft grounded, the weather also proved troublesome for the Germans because poor road conditions hampered their advance.

Poor traffic control led to massive traffic jams and fuel shortages in forward units. Vith , both road junctions of great strategic importance.

In the south, Brandenberger's Seventh Army pushed towards Luxembourg in its efforts to secure the flank from Allied attacks.

German Forces. While the Siege of Bastogne is often credited as the central point where the German offensive was stopped, [51] the battle for Elsenborn Ridge was actually the decisive component of the Battle of the Bulge, stopping the advance of the best equipped armored units of the German army and forcing them to reroute their troops to unfavorable alternative routes that considerably slowed their advance.

The 6th Panzer Army was given priority for supply and equipment and was assigned the shortest route to the ultimate objective of the offensive, Antwerp.

Its newest and most powerful tank, the Tiger II heavy tank, consumed 7. The attacks by the Sixth Panzer Army's infantry units in the north fared badly because of unexpectedly fierce resistance by the U.

Kampfgruppe Peiper, at the head of Sepp Dietrich's Sixth Panzer Army, had been designated to take the Losheim-Losheimergraben road, a key route through the Losheim Gap , but it was closed by two collapsed overpasses that German engineers failed to repair during the first day.

To preserve the quantity of armor available, the infantry of the 9th Fallschirmjaeger Regiment, 3rd Fallschirmjaeger Division , had been ordered to clear the village first.

A single man Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon from the 99th Infantry Division along with four Forward Air Controllers held up the battalion of about German paratroopers until sunset, about , causing 92 casualties among the Germans.

This created a bottleneck in the German advance. Kampfgruppe Peiper did not begin his advance until nearly , more than 16 hours behind schedule and didn't reach Bucholz Station until the early morning of 17 December.

Their intention was to control the twin villages of Rocherath-Krinkelt which would clear a path to the high ground of Elsenborn Ridge.

Occupation of this dominating terrain would allow control of the roads to the south and west and ensure supply to Kampfgruppe Peiper's armored task force.

At on 17 December, Kampfgruppe Peiper was near the hamlet of Baugnez , on the height halfway between the town of Malmedy and Ligneuville, when they encountered elements of the th Field Artillery Observation Battalion , U.

They were disarmed and, with some other Americans captured earlier approximately men , sent to stand in a field near the crossroads under light guard.

About fifteen minutes after Peiper's advance guard passed through, the main body under the command of SS- Sturmbannführer Werner Pötschke arrived.

The SS troopers suddenly opened fire on the prisoners. As soon as the firing began, the prisoners panicked. Most were shot where they stood, though some managed to flee.

Accounts of the killing vary, but at least 84 of the POWs were murdered. A few survived, and news of the killings of prisoners of war spread through Allied lines.

Driving to the south-east of Elsenborn, Kampfgruppe Peiper entered Honsfeld, where they encountered one of the 99th Division's rest centers, clogged with confused American troops.

They quickly captured portions of the 3rd Battalion of the th Infantry Regiment. They destroyed a number of American armored units and vehicles, and took several dozen prisoners who were subsequently murdered.

Peiper advanced north-west towards Büllingen , keeping to the plan to move west, unaware that if he had turned north he had an opportunity to flank and trap the entire 2nd and 99th Divisions.

To the north, the th Volksgrenadier Division attempted to break through the defending line of the U. The 12th SS Panzer Division , reinforced by additional infantry Panzergrenadier and Volksgrenadier divisions, took the key road junction at Losheimergraben just north of Lanzerath and attacked the twin villages of Rocherath and Krinkelt.

Another, smaller massacre was committed in Wereth , Belgium, approximately 6. Eleven black American soldiers were tortured after surrendering and then shot by men of the 1st SS Panzer Division belonging to Schnellgruppe Knittel.

The perpetrators were never punished for this crime. By the evening the spearhead had pushed north to engage the U.

Peiper's forces were already behind his timetable because of the stiff American resistance and because when the Americans fell back, their engineers blew up bridges and emptied fuel dumps.

Peiper's unit was delayed and his vehicles denied critically needed fuel. They took 36 hours to advance from the Eifel region to Stavelot, while the same advance required nine hours in Kampfgruppe Peiper attacked Stavelot on 18 December but was unable to capture the town before the Americans evacuated a large fuel depot.

Following this, 60 grenadiers advanced forward but were stopped by concentrated American defensive fire. After a fierce tank battle the next day, the Germans finally entered the town when U.

Capitalizing on his success and not wanting to lose more time, Peiper rushed an advance group toward the vital bridge at Trois-Ponts , leaving the bulk of his strength in Stavelot.

When they reached it at on 18 December, retreating U. At Cheneux, the advance guard was attacked by American fighter-bombers, destroying two tanks and five halftracks, blocking the narrow road.

The group began moving again at dusk at and was able to return to its original route at around Of the two bridges remaining between Kampfgruppe Peiper and the Meuse, the bridge over the Lienne was blown by the Americans as the Germans approached.

Peiper turned north and halted his forces in the woods between La Gleize and Stoumont. To Peiper's south, the advance of Kampfgruppe Hansen had stalled.

SS- Oberführer Mohnke ordered Schnellgruppe Knittel, which had been designated to follow Hansen, to instead move forward to support Peiper.

SS- Sturmbannführer Knittel crossed the bridge at Stavelot around against American forces trying to retake the town. Knittel pressed forward towards La Gleize, and shortly afterward the Americans recaptured Stavelot.

Peiper and Knittel both faced the prospect of being cut off. At dawn on 19 December, Peiper surprised the American defenders of Stoumont by sending infantry from the 2nd SS Panzergrenadier Regiment in an attack and a company of Fallschirmjäger to infiltrate their lines.

He followed this with a Panzer attack, gaining the eastern edge of the town. An American tank battalion arrived but, after a two-hour tank battle, Peiper finally captured Stoumont at Knittel joined up with Peiper and reported the Americans had recaptured Stavelot to their east.

Assessing his own situation, he determined that his Kampfgruppe did not have sufficient fuel to cross the bridge west of Stoumont and continue his advance.

He maintained his lines west of Stoumont for a while, until the evening of 19 December when he withdrew them to the village edge.

On the same evening the U. James Gavin arrived and deployed at La Gleize and along Peiper's planned route of advance. German efforts to reinforce Peiper were unsuccessful.

Kampfgruppe Hansen was still struggling against bad road conditions and stiff American resistance on the southern route. Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot.

Kampfgruppe Sandig, which had been ordered to take Stavelot, launched another attack without success. Small units of the U. They failed and were forced to withdraw, and a number were captured, including battalion commander Maj.

Hal McCown. As he withdrew from Cheneux, American paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division engaged the Germans in fierce house-to-house fighting.

The Americans shelled Kampfgruppe Peiper on 22 December, and although the Germans had run out of food and had virtually no fuel, they continued to fight.

A Luftwaffe resupply mission went badly when SS- Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke insisted the grid coordinates supplied by Peiper were wrong, parachuting supplies into American hands in Stoumont.

In La Gleize, Peiper set up defenses waiting for German relief. When the relief force was unable to penetrate the Allied lines, he decided to break through the Allied lines and return to the German lines on 23 December.

The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the remaining troops were able to escape.

German losses were much higher. In the northern sector opposite the 99th, this included more than 4, deaths and the destruction of 60 tanks and big guns.

Eisenhower wrote, " Army prevented the German forces from reaching the road network to their west. The objective was the " Baraque Michel " crossroads.

Von der Heydte was given only eight days to prepare prior to the assault. He was not allowed to use his own regiment because their movement might alert the Allies to the impending counterattack.

Instead, he was provided with a Kampfgruppe of men. The II Parachute Corps was tasked with contributing men from each of its regiments.

In loyalty to their commander, men from von der Heydte's own unit, the 6th Parachute Regiment , went against orders and joined him.

The parachute drop was a complete failure. Von der Heydte ended up with a total of around troops. Too small and too weak to counter the Allies, they abandoned plans to take the crossroads and instead converted the mission to reconnaissance.

With only enough ammunition for a single fight, they withdrew towards Germany and attacked the rear of the American lines.

Only about of his weary men finally reached the German rear. The Germans lacked the overwhelming strength that had been deployed in the north, but still possessed a marked numerical and material superiority over the very thinly spread 28th and th divisions.

They succeeded in surrounding two largely intact regiments nd and rd of the th Division in a pincer movement and forced their surrender, a tribute to the way Manteuffel's new tactics had been applied.

Army history states: "At least seven thousand [men] were lost here and the figure probably is closer to eight or nine thousand. The amount lost in arms and equipment, of course, was very substantial.

The Schnee Eifel battle, therefore, represents the most serious reverse suffered by American arms during the operations of —45 in the European theater.

In the center, the town of St. Vith, a vital road junction, presented the main challenge for both von Manteuffel's and Dietrich's forces.

The defenders, led by the 7th Armored Division , included the remaining regiment of the th U. Infantry Division, with elements of the 9th Armored Division and 28th U.

Infantry Division. These units, which operated under the command of Generals Robert W. Hasbrouck 7th Armored and Alan W.

Jones th Infantry , successfully resisted the German attacks, significantly slowing the German advance. At Montgomery's orders, St.

Vith was evacuated on 21 December; U. By 23 December, as the Germans shattered their flanks, the defenders' position became untenable and U.

Since the German plan called for the capture of St. Vith by on 17 December, the prolonged action in and around it dealt a major setback to their timetable.

To protect the river crossings on the Meuse at Givet, Dinant and Namur, Montgomery ordered those few units available to hold the bridges on 19 December.

This led to a hastily assembled force including rear-echelon troops, military police and Army Air Force personnel. The British 29th Armoured Brigade of British 11th Armoured Division , which had turned in its tanks for re-equipping, was told to take back their tanks and head to the area.

British XXX Corps was significantly reinforced for this effort. Unlike the German forces on the northern and southern shoulders who were experiencing great difficulties, the German advance in the center gained considerable ground.

The Ourthe River was passed at Ourtheville on 21 December. Lack of fuel held up the advance for one day, but on 23 December the offensive was resumed towards the two small towns of Hargimont and Marche-en-Famenne.

Hargimont was captured the same day, but Marche-en-Famenne was strongly defended by the American 84th Division. Although advancing only in a narrow corridor, 2nd Panzer Division was still making rapid headway, leading to jubilation in Berlin.

The narrow corridor caused considerable difficulties, as constant flanking attacks threatened the division.

On 24 December, German forces made their furthest penetration west. A hastily assembled British blocking force on the east side of the river prevented the German Battlegroup Böhm from approaching the Dinant bridge.

For Operation Greif " Griffin " , Otto Skorzeny successfully infiltrated a small part of his battalion of English-speaking Germans disguised in American uniforms behind the Allied lines.

Although they failed to take the vital bridges over the Meuse, their presence caused confusion out of all proportion to their military activities, and rumors spread quickly.

Checkpoints were set up all over the Allied rear, greatly slowing the movement of soldiers and equipment. American MPs at these checkpoints grilled troops on things that every American was expected to know, like the identity of Mickey Mouse 's girlfriend, baseball scores, or the capital of a particular U.

General Omar Bradley was briefly detained when he correctly identified Springfield as the capital of Illinois because the American MP who questioned him mistakenly believed the capital was Chicago.

The tightened security nonetheless made things very hard for the German infiltrators, and a number of them were captured.

Even during interrogation, they continued their goal of spreading disinformation ; when asked about their mission, some of them claimed they had been told to go to Paris to either kill or capture General Dwight Eisenhower.

Because Skorzeny's men were captured in American uniforms, they were executed as spies. Skorzeny was tried by an American military tribunal in at the Dachau Trials for allegedly violating the laws of war stemming from his leadership of Operation Greif, but was acquitted.

He later moved to Spain and South America. Operation Währung was carried out by a small number of German agents who infiltrated Allied lines in American uniforms.

These agents were tasked with using an existing Nazi intelligence network to bribe rail and port workers to disrupt Allied supply operations.

The operation was a failure. Further south on Manteuffel's front, the main thrust was delivered by all attacking divisions crossing the River Our , then increasing the pressure on the key road centers of St.

Vith and Bastogne. The more experienced U. The th Infantry Regiment the most northerly of the 28th Division's regiments , holding a continuous front east of the Our, kept German troops from seizing and using the Our River bridges around Ouren for two days, before withdrawing progressively westwards.

The th and th Regiments of the 28th Division fared worse, as they were spread so thinly that their positions were easily bypassed.

Both offered stubborn resistance in the face of superior forces and threw the German schedule off by several days.

Panzer columns took the outlying villages and widely separated strong points in bitter fighting, and advanced to points near Bastogne within four days.

The struggle for the villages and American strong points, plus transport confusion on the German side, slowed the attack sufficiently to allow the st Airborne Division reinforced by elements from the 9th and 10th Armored Divisions to reach Bastogne by truck on the morning of 19 December.

The fierce defense of Bastogne, in which American paratroopers particularly distinguished themselves, made it impossible for the Germans to take the town with its important road junctions.

The panzer columns swung past on either side, cutting off Bastogne on 20 December but failing to secure the vital crossroads.

In the extreme south, Brandenberger's three infantry divisions were checked by divisions of the U. VIII Corps after an advance of 6. Eisenhower and his principal commanders realized by 17 December that the fighting in the Ardennes was a major offensive and not a local counterattack, and they ordered vast reinforcements to the area.

Within a week , troops had been sent. General Gavin of the 82nd Airborne Division arrived on the scene first and ordered the st to hold Bastogne while the 82nd would take the more difficult task of facing the SS Panzer Divisions; it was also thrown into the battle north of the bulge, near Elsenborn Ridge.

Senior Allied commanders met in a bunker in Verdun on 19 December. By this time, the town of Bastogne and its network of 11 hard-topped roads leading through the widely forested mountainous terrain with deep river valleys and boggy mud of the Ardennes region was under severe threat.

Moreover, the sole corridor that was open to the southeast was threatened and it had been sporadically closed as the front shifted, and there was expectation that it would be completely closed sooner than later, given the strong likelihood that the town would soon be surrounded.

Eisenhower, realizing that the Allies could destroy German forces much more easily when they were out in the open and on the offensive than if they were on the defensive, told his generals, "The present situation is to be regarded as one of opportunity for us and not of disaster.

There will be only cheerful faces at this table. Then, we'll really cut 'em off and chew 'em up. To the disbelief of the other generals present, Patton replied that he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours.

Unknown to the other officers present, before he left Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength.

By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the movement was already underway. Armies from Gen.

Conditions inside the perimeter were tough—most of the medical supplies and medical personnel had been captured. Food was scarce, and by 22 December artillery ammunition was restricted to 10 rounds per gun per day.

The weather cleared the next day and supplies primarily ammunition were dropped over four of the next five days.

Despite determined German attacks, the perimeter held. The German commander, Generalleutnant Lt. Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz , [95] requested Bastogne's surrender.

Anthony McAuliffe , acting commander of the st, was told of the Nazi demand to surrender, in frustration he responded, "Nuts! One officer, Lt.

Harry Kinnard , noted that McAuliffe's initial reply would be "tough to beat. Both 2nd Panzer and Panzer-Lehr division moved forward from Bastogne after 21 December, leaving only Panzer-Lehr division's st Regiment to assist the 26th Volksgrenadier-Division in attempting to capture the crossroads.

Because it lacked sufficient troops and those of the 26th VG Division were near exhaustion, the XLVII Panzerkorps concentrated its assault on several individual locations on the west side of the perimeter in sequence rather than launching one simultaneous attack on all sides.

The assault, despite initial success by its tanks in penetrating the American line, was defeated and all the tanks destroyed.

On the following day of 26 December the spearhead of Gen. Patton's 4th Armored Division, supplemented by the 26th Yankee Infantry Division, broke through and opened a corridor to Bastogne.

On 23 December the weather conditions started improving, allowing the Allied air forces to attack. They launched devastating bombing raids on the German supply points in their rear, and P Thunderbolts started attacking the German troops on the roads.

Allied air forces also helped the defenders of Bastogne, dropping much-needed supplies—medicine, food, blankets, and ammunition.

A team of volunteer surgeons flew in by military glider and began operating in a tool room. By 24 December the German advance was effectively stalled short of the Meuse.

The Germans had outrun their supply lines, and shortages of fuel and ammunition were becoming critical. Up to this point the German losses had been light, notably in armor, with the exception of Peiper's losses.

On the evening of 24 December, General Hasso von Manteuffel recommended to Hitler's Military Adjutant a halt to all offensive operations and a withdrawal back to the Westwall literally Western Rampart.

Hitler rejected this. Disagreement and confusion at the Allied command prevented a strong response, throwing away the opportunity for a decisive action.

In the center, on Christmas Eve, the 2nd Armored Division attempted to attack and cut off the spearheads of the 2nd Panzer Division at the Meuse, while the units from the 4th Cavalry Group kept the 9th Panzer Division at Marche busy.

As result, parts of the 2nd Panzer Division were cut off. The Panzer-Lehr division tried to relieve them, but was only partially successful, as the perimeter held.

For the next two days the perimeter was strengthened. On 26 and 27 December the trapped units of 2nd Panzer Division made two break-out attempts, again only with partial success, as major quantities of equipment fell into Allied hands.

Further Allied pressure out of Marche finally led the German command to the conclusion that no further offensive action towards the Meuse was possible.

In the south, Patton's Third Army was battling to relieve Bastogne. On 1 January, in an attempt to keep the offensive going, the Germans launched two new operations.

Hundreds of planes attacked Allied airfields, destroying or severely damaging some aircraft. The Germans suffered heavy losses at an airfield named Y , losing 40 of their own planes while damaging only four American planes.

While the Allies recovered from their losses within days, the operation left the Luftwaffe ineffective for the remainder of the war.

The weakened Seventh Army had, at Eisenhower's orders, sent troops, equipment, and supplies north to reinforce the American armies in the Ardennes, and the offensive left it in dire straits.

With casualties mounting, and running short on replacements, tanks, ammunition, and supplies, Seventh Army was forced to withdraw to defensive positions on the south bank of the Moder River on 21 January.

The German offensive drew to a close on 25 January. In the bitter, desperate fighting of Operation Nordwind, VI Corps, which had borne the brunt of the fighting, suffered a total of 14, casualties.

The total for Seventh Army for January was 11, While the German offensive had ground to a halt during January , they still controlled a dangerous salient in the Allied line.

Patton's Third Army in the south, centered around Bastogne, would attack north, Montgomery's forces in the north would strike south, and the two forces planned to meet at Houffalize.

The temperature during that January was extremely low, which required weapons to be maintained and truck engines run every half-hour to prevent their oil from congealing.

The offensive went forward regardless. Er wolle jetzt dafür sorgen, dass Cooney posthum mit dem Distinguished Service Cross ausgezeichnet werde.

Woodruff empört sich darüber, dass ein Feigling geehrt werden soll und wirft Bartlett vor, die ganze Sache deshalb so zu manipulieren, um von Cooneys Vater unterstützt zu werden.

Bartlett ist unbekümmert und bemerkt, dass Woodruff eine Menge zu verlieren hat, wenn er die Geschichte bekannt macht.

Als der Lt. Dagegen ist die Figur des Captains Cooney ein wenig überzeichnet. Aldrich hat das offenbar selbst gesehen.

In einem Interview erklärte er, er habe Cooney selbst auf die Gefahr einer Überzeichnung hin als verabscheuungswürdigen Sadisten darstellen wollen.

Auf keinen Fall zu empfehlen. Robert Aldrich wurde mit dem Kritikerpreis ausgezeichnet. Woodruff Strother Martin : Sgt.

Filme von Robert Aldrich. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

Deutscher Titel. Ardennen FSK Robert Aldrich.

Luftlandedivision noch vor der Panzer-Lehr-Division Bayerlein ein. Nach eigenen Angaben war General Dwight D.

Luftlande-Division in Reims wurden [jedoch] bis zum Abend des zweiten Tages, des Dezember, nicht einmal in Marschbereitschaft gesetzt.

Patton mit seiner 3. Manteuffels […] in den Kampf zu werfen. Erst am Morgen des Devers , George S. Patton und anderen zu einem halbwegs koordinierten Vorgehen.

So erwog Eisenhower gegen den heftigen Protest der amerikanischen Generäle, dem Briten Montgomery ab Dezember die Führung im Norden, und somit auch den Oberbefehl über die 1.

US-Armee und die 9. Am Abend des Luftlandedivision [in Bastogne] und der Durch dieses Tor marschierten die Deutschen auf den Maasabschnitt Namur — Dinant — Givet los, der praktisch unverteidigt war.

Dezember war er nicht mehr in der Lage, sie beeinflussen zu können. Im Süden scheiterten die Angriffe auf Bastogne. Die 2. Panzer-Division umging den Ort im Norden.

Panzerarmee angreifende 7. Kritisch wurde die Lage der 7. US-Panzerdivision in St. Der Kommandeur Hasbrouck hatte keine Kontakte mehr und konnte einen Lagebericht nur per Kurier übermitteln.

Bereits am Dezember berichteten sie ihm aus erster Hand. US-Armee eintraf, war er besser unterrichtet als Hodges selber. Montgomery fing sich jedoch wieder und zuerst ging es auch nur darum, unmittelbar auf das bestehende Chaos zu reagieren.

Klar war, dass der Schwerpunkt der Offensive nun bei der 6. Panzerarmee lag. Die Bereiche der 9. Hodges wollte jedoch angreifen, Montgomery lenkte ein: In der Nacht zum Dezember vollendete die Vith gelegene Hotton an.

Vith genommen, und Ridgway sah sich vom 2. SS-Panzerkorps mit voller Wucht angefallen. Armee durch rasch aufeinanderfolgende Angriffe zurückgeprellt.

Der Überraschungsangriff am Dezember war gelungen und auch die Einsätze hinter den amerikanischen Linien hatten Wirkung gezeigt.

Doch beruhten die amerikanischen Abwehrerfolge auf dem Widerstand einzelner, meist isolierter Einheiten; das alliierte Befehlsgefüge befand sich am Dezember noch in der Reorganisation.

Die deutsche 5. Panzerarmee im Südbereich blieb weiterhin offensiv und die 6. Panzerarmee hatte nun mit Verstärkungen zum erneuerten Angriff angesetzt.

Der erste Angriff der 6. Panzerarmee trieb die 7. US-Panzerdivision aus St. Der dritte Angriff durch die 2. SS-Panzer-Division richtete sich gegen den bereits verkleinerten Frontvorsprung der Vith — Vielsalm — Laroche.

Panzer-Division an Rochefort vorbei bis zum letzten Höhenrücken vor der Maas. Dezember Ab dem Es bildete sich eine dünne Schneedecke und der Himmel klarte auf.

Er bestand nach einem Durchbruch der 2. Luftlandedivision zurückzuziehen. Lüttwitz verächtlich ab.

Am Morgen war die Bresche wieder geschlossen. Dezember Auch über die Weihnachtstage war es überwiegend sonnig und niederschlagsfrei bei kalten Nächten und Tagestemperaturen um den Gefrierpunkt, so dass sich die Bodenoperationen der Wehrmacht durch die nun wieder herrschende Luftüberlegenheit der Alliierten erschwerten.

Panzer-Division und Teile des nachfolgenden Gros wurden von amerikanischen Verbänden abgeschnitten. Hubert wurde von Kräften genommen, die ebenfalls Bastogne umgangen hatten.

Panzerarmee vorwärts helfen. Hitler wies den letzten Vorschlag ab. Dezember Er setzte die Am Vormittag war die amerikanische Front wieder hergestellt.

Die Masse der Division hatte Rochefort genommen und marschierte weiter nach Westen. Hubert hinauskommen, und in ihrer rechten Flanke war die Panzer-Division zwischen Marche und Hotton unvermittelt zum Stehen gebracht worden.

Von den Panzerreserven, die Hitler v. Manteuffel zugesagt hatte, war eine Division auf Butgenbach abgezweigt worden, eine andere in den Kampf um Bastogne verwickelt und die dritte, die sich Marche erst näherte, wegen Treibstoffmangels zurückgeblieben.

Die deutsche 2. Panzer-Division blieb isoliert. Panzer-Division vergeblich zur Entsetzung der Vorhut durchzubrechen suchte. An der Front der 6.

Panzerarmee gab es wenig Bewegung, da Montgomery die ihm unterstellten Truppen zum Gegenangriff umgruppierte. Das nähere wie das weitere Hinterland der [deutschen] Front stand unter pausenlosen [Luft-]Angriffen, die sämtliche Verbindungen der Heeresgruppen zerschlugen.

In zwei Teile gesprengt, von Artilleriefeuer stark mitgenommen, von Jagdbomberschwärmen ständig angegriffen, wurde die 2.

Panzer-Division so gut wie aufgerieben. So wurden wir, statt uns rechtzeitig abzusetzen, unter dem Druck der alliierten Angriffe Schritt für Schritt zurückgetrieben und erlitten unnötig schwere Verluste.

Der Brite hingegen war nicht an einem kontinuierlichen Angriffsgeschehen interessiert, er war entschlossen, eine starke Streitmacht für den Augenblick zur Hand zu haben, wo die deutschen Reserven gebunden wären.

Die Briten hatten, anders als die Amerikaner, keine frischen Divisionen mehr zu erwarten, und so lag ihm sehr daran, sein XXX.

Korps für die kommende Schlacht im Rheinland zu erhalten. Dezember Nun versuchte v. Dezember schlug Bradley vor, Pattons Vormarsch mit der 3.

Dezember besprachen Eisenhower und Montgomery den Vorschlag. Januar zu eröffnen. Östlich der Vogesen lief der Angriff ins Leere, da sich die 7.

The perpetrators were never punished for this crime. By the evening the spearhead had pushed north to engage the U.

Peiper's forces were already behind his timetable because of the stiff American resistance and because when the Americans fell back, their engineers blew up bridges and emptied fuel dumps.

Peiper's unit was delayed and his vehicles denied critically needed fuel. They took 36 hours to advance from the Eifel region to Stavelot, while the same advance required nine hours in Kampfgruppe Peiper attacked Stavelot on 18 December but was unable to capture the town before the Americans evacuated a large fuel depot.

Following this, 60 grenadiers advanced forward but were stopped by concentrated American defensive fire. After a fierce tank battle the next day, the Germans finally entered the town when U.

Capitalizing on his success and not wanting to lose more time, Peiper rushed an advance group toward the vital bridge at Trois-Ponts , leaving the bulk of his strength in Stavelot.

When they reached it at on 18 December, retreating U. At Cheneux, the advance guard was attacked by American fighter-bombers, destroying two tanks and five halftracks, blocking the narrow road.

The group began moving again at dusk at and was able to return to its original route at around Of the two bridges remaining between Kampfgruppe Peiper and the Meuse, the bridge over the Lienne was blown by the Americans as the Germans approached.

Peiper turned north and halted his forces in the woods between La Gleize and Stoumont. To Peiper's south, the advance of Kampfgruppe Hansen had stalled.

SS- Oberführer Mohnke ordered Schnellgruppe Knittel, which had been designated to follow Hansen, to instead move forward to support Peiper.

SS- Sturmbannführer Knittel crossed the bridge at Stavelot around against American forces trying to retake the town.

Knittel pressed forward towards La Gleize, and shortly afterward the Americans recaptured Stavelot. Peiper and Knittel both faced the prospect of being cut off.

At dawn on 19 December, Peiper surprised the American defenders of Stoumont by sending infantry from the 2nd SS Panzergrenadier Regiment in an attack and a company of Fallschirmjäger to infiltrate their lines.

He followed this with a Panzer attack, gaining the eastern edge of the town. An American tank battalion arrived but, after a two-hour tank battle, Peiper finally captured Stoumont at Knittel joined up with Peiper and reported the Americans had recaptured Stavelot to their east.

Assessing his own situation, he determined that his Kampfgruppe did not have sufficient fuel to cross the bridge west of Stoumont and continue his advance.

He maintained his lines west of Stoumont for a while, until the evening of 19 December when he withdrew them to the village edge.

On the same evening the U. James Gavin arrived and deployed at La Gleize and along Peiper's planned route of advance. German efforts to reinforce Peiper were unsuccessful.

Kampfgruppe Hansen was still struggling against bad road conditions and stiff American resistance on the southern route.

Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot. Kampfgruppe Sandig, which had been ordered to take Stavelot, launched another attack without success.

Small units of the U. They failed and were forced to withdraw, and a number were captured, including battalion commander Maj.

Hal McCown. As he withdrew from Cheneux, American paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division engaged the Germans in fierce house-to-house fighting.

The Americans shelled Kampfgruppe Peiper on 22 December, and although the Germans had run out of food and had virtually no fuel, they continued to fight.

A Luftwaffe resupply mission went badly when SS- Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke insisted the grid coordinates supplied by Peiper were wrong, parachuting supplies into American hands in Stoumont.

In La Gleize, Peiper set up defenses waiting for German relief. When the relief force was unable to penetrate the Allied lines, he decided to break through the Allied lines and return to the German lines on 23 December.

The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the remaining troops were able to escape.

German losses were much higher. In the northern sector opposite the 99th, this included more than 4, deaths and the destruction of 60 tanks and big guns.

Eisenhower wrote, " Army prevented the German forces from reaching the road network to their west. The objective was the " Baraque Michel " crossroads.

Von der Heydte was given only eight days to prepare prior to the assault. He was not allowed to use his own regiment because their movement might alert the Allies to the impending counterattack.

Instead, he was provided with a Kampfgruppe of men. The II Parachute Corps was tasked with contributing men from each of its regiments.

In loyalty to their commander, men from von der Heydte's own unit, the 6th Parachute Regiment , went against orders and joined him.

The parachute drop was a complete failure. Von der Heydte ended up with a total of around troops.

Too small and too weak to counter the Allies, they abandoned plans to take the crossroads and instead converted the mission to reconnaissance.

With only enough ammunition for a single fight, they withdrew towards Germany and attacked the rear of the American lines.

Only about of his weary men finally reached the German rear. The Germans lacked the overwhelming strength that had been deployed in the north, but still possessed a marked numerical and material superiority over the very thinly spread 28th and th divisions.

They succeeded in surrounding two largely intact regiments nd and rd of the th Division in a pincer movement and forced their surrender, a tribute to the way Manteuffel's new tactics had been applied.

Army history states: "At least seven thousand [men] were lost here and the figure probably is closer to eight or nine thousand.

The amount lost in arms and equipment, of course, was very substantial. The Schnee Eifel battle, therefore, represents the most serious reverse suffered by American arms during the operations of —45 in the European theater.

In the center, the town of St. Vith, a vital road junction, presented the main challenge for both von Manteuffel's and Dietrich's forces.

The defenders, led by the 7th Armored Division , included the remaining regiment of the th U. Infantry Division, with elements of the 9th Armored Division and 28th U.

Infantry Division. These units, which operated under the command of Generals Robert W. Hasbrouck 7th Armored and Alan W.

Jones th Infantry , successfully resisted the German attacks, significantly slowing the German advance.

At Montgomery's orders, St. Vith was evacuated on 21 December; U. By 23 December, as the Germans shattered their flanks, the defenders' position became untenable and U.

Since the German plan called for the capture of St. Vith by on 17 December, the prolonged action in and around it dealt a major setback to their timetable.

To protect the river crossings on the Meuse at Givet, Dinant and Namur, Montgomery ordered those few units available to hold the bridges on 19 December.

This led to a hastily assembled force including rear-echelon troops, military police and Army Air Force personnel. The British 29th Armoured Brigade of British 11th Armoured Division , which had turned in its tanks for re-equipping, was told to take back their tanks and head to the area.

British XXX Corps was significantly reinforced for this effort. Unlike the German forces on the northern and southern shoulders who were experiencing great difficulties, the German advance in the center gained considerable ground.

The Ourthe River was passed at Ourtheville on 21 December. Lack of fuel held up the advance for one day, but on 23 December the offensive was resumed towards the two small towns of Hargimont and Marche-en-Famenne.

Hargimont was captured the same day, but Marche-en-Famenne was strongly defended by the American 84th Division.

Although advancing only in a narrow corridor, 2nd Panzer Division was still making rapid headway, leading to jubilation in Berlin.

The narrow corridor caused considerable difficulties, as constant flanking attacks threatened the division. On 24 December, German forces made their furthest penetration west.

A hastily assembled British blocking force on the east side of the river prevented the German Battlegroup Böhm from approaching the Dinant bridge.

For Operation Greif " Griffin " , Otto Skorzeny successfully infiltrated a small part of his battalion of English-speaking Germans disguised in American uniforms behind the Allied lines.

Although they failed to take the vital bridges over the Meuse, their presence caused confusion out of all proportion to their military activities, and rumors spread quickly.

Checkpoints were set up all over the Allied rear, greatly slowing the movement of soldiers and equipment. American MPs at these checkpoints grilled troops on things that every American was expected to know, like the identity of Mickey Mouse 's girlfriend, baseball scores, or the capital of a particular U.

General Omar Bradley was briefly detained when he correctly identified Springfield as the capital of Illinois because the American MP who questioned him mistakenly believed the capital was Chicago.

The tightened security nonetheless made things very hard for the German infiltrators, and a number of them were captured. Even during interrogation, they continued their goal of spreading disinformation ; when asked about their mission, some of them claimed they had been told to go to Paris to either kill or capture General Dwight Eisenhower.

Because Skorzeny's men were captured in American uniforms, they were executed as spies. Skorzeny was tried by an American military tribunal in at the Dachau Trials for allegedly violating the laws of war stemming from his leadership of Operation Greif, but was acquitted.

He later moved to Spain and South America. Operation Währung was carried out by a small number of German agents who infiltrated Allied lines in American uniforms.

These agents were tasked with using an existing Nazi intelligence network to bribe rail and port workers to disrupt Allied supply operations.

The operation was a failure. Further south on Manteuffel's front, the main thrust was delivered by all attacking divisions crossing the River Our , then increasing the pressure on the key road centers of St.

Vith and Bastogne. The more experienced U. The th Infantry Regiment the most northerly of the 28th Division's regiments , holding a continuous front east of the Our, kept German troops from seizing and using the Our River bridges around Ouren for two days, before withdrawing progressively westwards.

The th and th Regiments of the 28th Division fared worse, as they were spread so thinly that their positions were easily bypassed.

Both offered stubborn resistance in the face of superior forces and threw the German schedule off by several days. Panzer columns took the outlying villages and widely separated strong points in bitter fighting, and advanced to points near Bastogne within four days.

The struggle for the villages and American strong points, plus transport confusion on the German side, slowed the attack sufficiently to allow the st Airborne Division reinforced by elements from the 9th and 10th Armored Divisions to reach Bastogne by truck on the morning of 19 December.

The fierce defense of Bastogne, in which American paratroopers particularly distinguished themselves, made it impossible for the Germans to take the town with its important road junctions.

The panzer columns swung past on either side, cutting off Bastogne on 20 December but failing to secure the vital crossroads.

In the extreme south, Brandenberger's three infantry divisions were checked by divisions of the U.

VIII Corps after an advance of 6. Eisenhower and his principal commanders realized by 17 December that the fighting in the Ardennes was a major offensive and not a local counterattack, and they ordered vast reinforcements to the area.

Within a week , troops had been sent. General Gavin of the 82nd Airborne Division arrived on the scene first and ordered the st to hold Bastogne while the 82nd would take the more difficult task of facing the SS Panzer Divisions; it was also thrown into the battle north of the bulge, near Elsenborn Ridge.

Senior Allied commanders met in a bunker in Verdun on 19 December. By this time, the town of Bastogne and its network of 11 hard-topped roads leading through the widely forested mountainous terrain with deep river valleys and boggy mud of the Ardennes region was under severe threat.

Moreover, the sole corridor that was open to the southeast was threatened and it had been sporadically closed as the front shifted, and there was expectation that it would be completely closed sooner than later, given the strong likelihood that the town would soon be surrounded.

Eisenhower, realizing that the Allies could destroy German forces much more easily when they were out in the open and on the offensive than if they were on the defensive, told his generals, "The present situation is to be regarded as one of opportunity for us and not of disaster.

There will be only cheerful faces at this table. Then, we'll really cut 'em off and chew 'em up. To the disbelief of the other generals present, Patton replied that he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours.

Unknown to the other officers present, before he left Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength.

By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the movement was already underway.

Armies from Gen. Conditions inside the perimeter were tough—most of the medical supplies and medical personnel had been captured.

Food was scarce, and by 22 December artillery ammunition was restricted to 10 rounds per gun per day. The weather cleared the next day and supplies primarily ammunition were dropped over four of the next five days.

Despite determined German attacks, the perimeter held. The German commander, Generalleutnant Lt. Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz , [95] requested Bastogne's surrender.

Anthony McAuliffe , acting commander of the st, was told of the Nazi demand to surrender, in frustration he responded, "Nuts! One officer, Lt.

Harry Kinnard , noted that McAuliffe's initial reply would be "tough to beat. Both 2nd Panzer and Panzer-Lehr division moved forward from Bastogne after 21 December, leaving only Panzer-Lehr division's st Regiment to assist the 26th Volksgrenadier-Division in attempting to capture the crossroads.

Because it lacked sufficient troops and those of the 26th VG Division were near exhaustion, the XLVII Panzerkorps concentrated its assault on several individual locations on the west side of the perimeter in sequence rather than launching one simultaneous attack on all sides.

The assault, despite initial success by its tanks in penetrating the American line, was defeated and all the tanks destroyed.

On the following day of 26 December the spearhead of Gen. Patton's 4th Armored Division, supplemented by the 26th Yankee Infantry Division, broke through and opened a corridor to Bastogne.

On 23 December the weather conditions started improving, allowing the Allied air forces to attack. They launched devastating bombing raids on the German supply points in their rear, and P Thunderbolts started attacking the German troops on the roads.

Allied air forces also helped the defenders of Bastogne, dropping much-needed supplies—medicine, food, blankets, and ammunition. A team of volunteer surgeons flew in by military glider and began operating in a tool room.

By 24 December the German advance was effectively stalled short of the Meuse. The Germans had outrun their supply lines, and shortages of fuel and ammunition were becoming critical.

Up to this point the German losses had been light, notably in armor, with the exception of Peiper's losses. On the evening of 24 December, General Hasso von Manteuffel recommended to Hitler's Military Adjutant a halt to all offensive operations and a withdrawal back to the Westwall literally Western Rampart.

Hitler rejected this. Disagreement and confusion at the Allied command prevented a strong response, throwing away the opportunity for a decisive action.

In the center, on Christmas Eve, the 2nd Armored Division attempted to attack and cut off the spearheads of the 2nd Panzer Division at the Meuse, while the units from the 4th Cavalry Group kept the 9th Panzer Division at Marche busy.

As result, parts of the 2nd Panzer Division were cut off. The Panzer-Lehr division tried to relieve them, but was only partially successful, as the perimeter held.

For the next two days the perimeter was strengthened. On 26 and 27 December the trapped units of 2nd Panzer Division made two break-out attempts, again only with partial success, as major quantities of equipment fell into Allied hands.

Further Allied pressure out of Marche finally led the German command to the conclusion that no further offensive action towards the Meuse was possible.

In the south, Patton's Third Army was battling to relieve Bastogne. On 1 January, in an attempt to keep the offensive going, the Germans launched two new operations.

Hundreds of planes attacked Allied airfields, destroying or severely damaging some aircraft. The Germans suffered heavy losses at an airfield named Y , losing 40 of their own planes while damaging only four American planes.

While the Allies recovered from their losses within days, the operation left the Luftwaffe ineffective for the remainder of the war.

The weakened Seventh Army had, at Eisenhower's orders, sent troops, equipment, and supplies north to reinforce the American armies in the Ardennes, and the offensive left it in dire straits.

With casualties mounting, and running short on replacements, tanks, ammunition, and supplies, Seventh Army was forced to withdraw to defensive positions on the south bank of the Moder River on 21 January.

The German offensive drew to a close on 25 January. In the bitter, desperate fighting of Operation Nordwind, VI Corps, which had borne the brunt of the fighting, suffered a total of 14, casualties.

The total for Seventh Army for January was 11, While the German offensive had ground to a halt during January , they still controlled a dangerous salient in the Allied line.

Patton's Third Army in the south, centered around Bastogne, would attack north, Montgomery's forces in the north would strike south, and the two forces planned to meet at Houffalize.

The temperature during that January was extremely low, which required weapons to be maintained and truck engines run every half-hour to prevent their oil from congealing.

The offensive went forward regardless. Eisenhower wanted Montgomery to go on the counter offensive on 1 January, with the aim of meeting up with Patton's advancing Third Army and cutting off most of the attacking Germans, trapping them in a pocket.

Montgomery, refusing to risk underprepared infantry in a snowstorm for a strategically unimportant area, did not launch the attack until 3 January, by which time substantial numbers of German troops had already managed to fall back successfully, but at the cost of losing most of their heavy equipment.

At the start of the offensive, the First and Third U. American progress in the south was also restricted to about a kilometre or a little over half a mile per day.

On 7 January Hitler agreed to withdraw all forces from the Ardennes, including the SS-Panzer divisions, thus ending all offensive operations.

On January 14, Hitler granted Gerd von Rundstedt permission to carry out a fairly drastic retreat in the Ardennes region.

Houffalize and the Bastogne front would be abandoned. Vith was recaptured by the Americans on 23 January, and the last German units participating in the offensive did not return to their start line until 25 January.

Winston Churchill , addressing the House of Commons following the Battle of the Bulge said, "This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory.

Infantrymen fire at German troops in the advance to relieve the surrounded paratroopers in Bastogne [m]. Americans of the st Engineers near Wiltz , Luxembourg, January The plan and timing for the Ardennes attack sprang from the mind of Adolf Hitler.

He believed a critical fault line existed between the British and American military commands, and that a heavy blow on the Western Front would shatter this alliance.

Planning for the "Watch on the Rhine" offensive emphasized secrecy and the commitment of overwhelming force.

Due to the use of landline communications within Germany, motorized runners carrying orders, and draconian threats from Hitler, the timing and mass of the attack was not detected by Ultra codebreakers and achieved complete surprise.

He entrusted them with carrying out his decisive counterattack. The leadership composition of the Sixth Panzer Division had a distinctly political nature.

Despite their loyalty, none of the German field commanders entrusted with planning and executing the offensive believed it was possible to capture Antwerp.

Even Dietrich believed the Ardennes was a poor area for armored warfare and that the inexperienced and badly equipped Volksgrenadier soldiers would clog the roads the tanks needed for their rapid advance.

In fact, their horse-drawn artillery and rocket units became a significant obstacle to the armored units.

Model and Manteuffel, technical experts from the eastern front, told Hitler that a limited offensive with the goal of surrounding and crushing the American 1st Army would be the best goal their offensive could hope to achieve.

Their ideas shared the same fate as Dietrich's objections. The German staff planning and organization of the attack was well done.

Most of the units committed to the offensive reached their jump off points undetected. They were for the most part well organized and supplied for the attack, although they were counting on capturing American gasoline dumps to fuel their vehicles.

As the battle ensued, on the northern shoulder of the offensive, Dietrich stopped the armored assault on the twin villages after two days and changed the axis of their advance southward through the hamlet of Domäne Bütgenbach.

The headlong drive on Elsenborn Ridge lacked needed support from German units that had already bypassed the ridge.

Eisenhower 's commitment to a broad front advance. This view was opposed by the British Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Field Marshal Alan Brooke , as well as Field Marshal Montgomery, who promoted a rapid advance on a narrow front, with the other allied armies in reserve.

Major-General Freddie de Guingand , Chief of Staff of Montgomery's 21st Army Group, rose to the occasion, and personally smoothed over the disagreements on 30 December.

As the Ardennes crisis developed, the U. First Army Hodges and U. Ninth Army Simpson on the northern shoulder of the German penetration lost communications with adjacent armies, as well as with Bradley's headquarters in Luxembourg City to the south of the "bulge".

First and Ninth Armies temporarily from Bradley to Montgomery. First Army reverted to the U. Dagegen ist die Figur des Captains Cooney ein wenig überzeichnet.

Aldrich hat das offenbar selbst gesehen. In einem Interview erklärte er, er habe Cooney selbst auf die Gefahr einer Überzeichnung hin als verabscheuungswürdigen Sadisten darstellen wollen.

Auf keinen Fall zu empfehlen. Robert Aldrich wurde mit dem Kritikerpreis ausgezeichnet. Woodruff Strother Martin : Sgt.

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