Tutsi Konfliktursachen gehen in die Kolonialzeit zurück
Als Völkermord in Ruanda werden umfangreiche Gewalttaten in Ruanda bezeichnet, die am 6. April begannen und bis Mitte Juli andauerten. Sie kosteten circa bis Menschen das Leben, die niedrigsten Schätzungen gehen von. Alle noch im Land lebenden Tutsi-Politiker wurden ermordet. Das Hutu-Regime machte seither die Bedrohung durch die Tutsi-Rebellen für alle wesentlichen. Es war Afrikas Albtraum: ermordeten Hutu-Milizen binnen hundert Tagen Menschen, vor allem aus der Tutsi-Minderheit. Am 7. April begann in Ruanda der Völkermord an der Tutsi-Minderheit: Innerhalb weniger Wochen töteten radikale Hutu mehr als. Zehntausende Tutsi verließen das Land oder beteiligten sich an einem sporadisch aufflammenden Guerillakrieg, der mit Massakern auf beiden.
Wenn man von Ruanda spricht, kommt die Rede schnell auf den Hutu-Tutsi-Konflikt. Doch die beiden Gruppen sind mittlerweile so eng miteinander verbunden. Als Völkermord in Ruanda werden umfangreiche Gewalttaten in Ruanda bezeichnet, die am 6. April begannen und bis Mitte Juli andauerten. Sie kosteten circa bis Menschen das Leben, die niedrigsten Schätzungen gehen von. Am 7. April begann in Ruanda der Völkermord an der Tutsi-Minderheit: Innerhalb weniger Wochen töteten radikale Hutu mehr als. Tutton, Alfred Edwin Howard. Definitions Genocide law Prevention Effects on young survivors. Kagame proposed that these laws were necessary for retaining national unity and protecting Tutsi future genocide. Retrieved 2 April see more Genocidal killings began the following day when soldiers, police, and militia executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu military and political leaders. It is paid by Uhse Stream Beate groom's family to the bride's family because they are losing her labor. Aptel, Cicile It is a good this web page brief presentation for those willing to know a little from Rwanda History. In click here won election as president. Konfliktakteure Der ethnische 6 Vorschau Uu zwischen Hutu und Tutsi ist uralt und bezieht sich nicht nur auf die Massaker Ein Bundeswehroffizierdamals Mitglied einer Tutsi, habe das Bundesverteidigungsministerium vor möglichen Massakern gewarnt. Zum Vorschein kamen weissliche, vernarbte Wundmale. Und wo herrscht am längsten Frieden? Konfliktakteure 2. Zwischen der Hutu-Armee und der Zweig Arnold kam es unterdessen landesweit zu Kämpfen, wobei die Tutsi immer mehr Territorium gewannen. Am häufigsten ist die Angabe
Ethnically motivated violence continued in the years following independence. He was elected president under a new constitution ratified in and reelected in and , when he was the sole candidate.
Habyarimana accused Tutsi residents of being RPF accomplices and arrested hundreds of them. Between and , government officials directed massacres of the Tutsi, killing hundreds.
A ceasefire in these hostilities led to negotiations between the government and the RPF in In August , Habyarimana signed an agreement at Arusha, Tanzania, calling for the creation of a transition government that would include the RPF.
This power-sharing agreement angered Hutu extremists, who would soon take swift and horrible action to prevent it.
It has never been conclusively determined who the culprits were. Some have blamed Hutu extremists, while others blamed leaders of the RPF.
Among the first victims of the genocide were the moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and 10 Belgian peacekeepers, killed on April 7.
This violence created a political vacuum, into which an interim government of extremist Hutu Power leaders from the military high command stepped on April 9.
The killing of the Belgium peacekeepers, meanwhile, provoked the withdrawal of Belgium troops. And the U.
The mass killings in Kigali quickly spread from that city to the rest of Rwanda. In the first two weeks, local administrators in central and southern Rwanda, where most Tutsi lived, resisted the genocide.
After April 18, national officials removed the resisters and killed several of them. Other opponents then fell silent or actively led the killing.
Officials rewarded killers with food, drink, drugs and money. Government-sponsored radio stations started calling on ordinary Rwandan civilians to murder their neighbors.
Meanwhile, the RPF resumed fighting, and civil war raged alongside the genocide. In response, more than 2 million people, nearly all Hutus, fled Rwanda, crowding into refugee camps in the Congo then called Zaire and other neighboring countries.
After its victory, the RPF established a coalition government similar to that agreed upon at Arusha, with Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, as president and Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, as vice president and defense minister.
In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes. In Burundi, meanwhile, Tutsi domination was even more entrenched.
A ruling faction, the Ganwa , soon emerged from amongst the Tutsi and assumed effective control of the country's administration.
Both the Tutsi and Hutu had been the traditional governing elite, but both colonial powers allowed only the Tutsi to be educated and to participate in the colonial government.
Such discriminatory policies engendered resentment. When the Belgians took over, they believed it could be better governed if they continued to identify the different populations.
In the s, they required people to identify with a particular ethnic group and classified them accordingly in censuses.
In , Belgium reversed its stance and allowed the majority Hutu to assume control of the government through universal elections after independence.
This partly reflected internal Belgian domestic politics, in which the discrimination against the Hutu majority came to be regarded as similar to oppression within Belgium stemming from the Flemish-Walloon conflict, and the democratization and empowerment of the Hutu was seen as a just response to the Tutsi domination.
Belgian policies wavered and flip-flopped considerably during this period leading up to independence of Burundi and Rwanda.
The Hutu majority in Rwanda had revolted against the Tutsi and was able to take power. Tutsis fled and created exile communities outside Rwanda in Uganda and Tanzania.
Since Burundi's independence, more extremist Tutsi came to power and oppressed the Hutus, especially those who were educated. In , Burundi's first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye , a Hutu, was assassinated by Tutsi officers, as was the person entitled to succeed him under the constitution.
Traditionally, the Tutsi had held more economic power and controlled the military. A similar pattern of events took place in Rwanda, but there the Hutu came to power in They in turn often oppressed the Tutsi, who fled the country.
After the anti-Tutsi violence around —, Tutsis fled in large numbers. These exile Tutsi communities gave rise to Tutsi rebel movements.
The Rwandan Patriotic Front , mostly made up of exiled Tutsi living primarily in Uganda, attacked Rwanda in with the intention of liberating Rwanda.
Attempts at peace culminated in the Arusha Accords. The agreement broke down after the assassination of the Rwandan and Burundian Presidents, triggering a resumption of hostilities and the start of the Genocide against the Tutsi of , in which the Hutu then in power killed an estimated ,—1,, people, largely of Tutsi origin.
Tutsis speak Rwanda-Rundi as their native language. Rwanda-Rundi is subdivided into the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects, which have been standardized as official languages of Burundi and Rwanda.
In the Rwanda territory, from the 15th century until , the Tutsi were ruled by a king the mwami. Belgium abolished the monarchy, following the national referendum that led to independence.
By contrast, in the northwestern part of the country predominantly Hutu , large regional landholders shared power, similar to Buganda society in what is now Uganda.
Under their holy king, Tutsi culture traditionally revolved around administering justice and government. They were the only proprietors of cattle , and sustained themselves on their own products.
Additionally, their lifestyle afforded them a lot of leisure time, which they spent cultivating the high arts of poetry, weaving and music.
Due to the Tutsi's status as a dominant minority vis-a-vis the Hutu farmers and the other local inhabitants, this relationship has been likened to that between lords and serfs in feudal Europe.
According to Fage , the Tutsi are serologically related to Bantu and Nilotic populations. This in turn rules out a possible Cushitic origin for the founding Tutsi-Hima ruling class in the lacustrine kingdoms.
However, the royal burial customs of the latter kingdoms are quite similar to those practiced by the former Cushitic Sidama states in the southern Gibe region of Ethiopia.
By contrast, Bantu populations to the north of the Tutsi-Hima in Kenya were until modern times essentially without a king, while there were a number of Bantu kingdoms to the south of the Tutsi-Hima in Tanzania, all of which shared the Tutsi-Hima's chieftaincy pattern.
Since the Cushitic Sidama kingdoms interacted with Nilotic groups, Fage thus proposes that the Tutsi may have descended from one such migrating Nilotic population.
The Tutsis' Nilotic ancestors would thereby in earlier times have served as cultural intermediaries, adopting some monarchical traditions from adjacent Cushitic kingdoms and subsequently taking those borrowed customs south with them when they first settled amongst Bantu autochthones in the Great Lakes area.
However, little difference can be ascertained between the cultures today of the Tutsi and Hutu; both groups speak the same Bantu language.
The rate of intermarriage between the two groups was traditionally very high, and relations were amicable until the 20th century. Many scholars have concluded that the determination of Tutsi was and is mainly an expression of class or caste, rather than ethnicity.
Keogh, P. Kimenyi, A. Lemarchand, Rene. Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, Rwanda and Burundi.
London: Pall Mall , Malkki, Liisa H. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Maquet, Jacques J.
Edited by Daryl Forde. London: Oxford University Press, Ramkisson, Indra. Burundi: A Cultural Profile. Taylor, C. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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They have much in common with the other groups of this region, the Twa and the Hutu. Their cultures are similar, and they all speak the same language.
In the past, the Tutsi were cattle herders. They were a minority of the population. However, most of the upper-class rulers were Tutsi. A system of cattle trading helped keep peace among the different groups.
The wealthier people often Tutsi lent cattle to the poorer ones often Hutu. In return they gained their labor, loyalty, and political support.
Social relations in Rwanda and Burundi were changed by European rule. The Germans held power from the s until World War I — Then the Belgians ruled until For most of this period, the Europeans treated the Tutsi better than the Hutu.
In the s, however, the Belgians urged the Hutu to challenge Tutsi power. In Hutu leaders overthrew the Tutsi monarchy in Rwanda.
Many Tutsi fled to nearby countries. In Burundi, the change to independence was more peaceful.
The mwami the Tutsi king helped the Tutsi and Hutu sides reach an agreement. However, the peace did not last. The Hutu tried to gain power by force, and they were defeated.
When the colonial period ended, opposite sides controlled Rwanda and Burundi. The Hutu held power in Rwanda until The Tutsi still rule Burundi.
Hutu power in Rwanda ended in when Tutsi rebels overthrew the government. However, this Tutsi victory occurred at a great cost in human lives.
As many as one million people were killed. Their combined total area is about 20, square miles 54, square kilometers.
This is about the combined size of the states of Maryland and New Jersey. Tutsi also live in the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo formerly Zaire.
They live near the city of Bukavu in the Mulenge region. Here they are known as the Banyamulenge. The combined population of Rwanda and Burundi was about 13 million in However, many refugees fled Rwanda that year.
In addition, many Rwandese Tutsi returned from Uganda after the Hutu army was defeated in It is called Kinyarwanda in Rwanda, and Kirundi in Burundi.
Both are dialects of the same language. Like other Bantu languages, both use nouns with prefixes. For example, the word Banyamulenge "Ba-nya-mulenge" can be divided into parts.
The prefix "banya" means "people"; "Mulenge" is the name of a region. The whole word means "people of Mulenge.
Many Rwandese and Burundians speak French, the language of their former Belgian rulers. French is used in school.
Also, many people in both countries have French first names. Tutsi who have been refugees in Uganda may also speak English. Personal names may be based on events, poetry, or beliefs.
The name Ndagijimana means " God is my herder. Tutsi folklore includes poetry, proverbs, folk tales, riddles, and myths.
Some Tutsis used to know the names of their ancestors at least six generations back. Many believed they were descended from a mythical king named Gihanga.
One popular folk tale tells the story of Sebgugugu. He was a poor man who was helped by God. God performed miracles to provide food for him and his family.
However, each time Sebgugugu wanted more. Through his greed, Sebgugugu lost everything in the end. Today most people in Rwanda and Burundi are Christians.
However, some traditional beliefs survive. These include the belief in a distant creator called Imaana. This god has the power to grant wealth and fertility.
The king shares in this power. It can be seen in his sacred fire, royal drums, and rituals. Spirits of dead relatives, called abazima , carry messages between Imaana and the human world.
However, the abazima may bring bad luck to those who do not respect them. People offer gifts to protect themselves from the abazima.
They also try to learn the spirits' wishes by seeing fortune-tellers. The Tutsis' traditional holidays were celebrated with dancing and sacred drumming.
These holidays are no longer observed. Hutu and Tutsi rites of passage are very similar. The first one, the naming ceremony, takes place seven days after a child's birth.
Marriage is made legal by payment of the bride wealth. It is paid by the groom's family to the bride's family because they are losing her labor.
There is no ritual other than marriage to mark the beginning of adulthood. Death is marked by prayers, speeches, and limits on many activities.
Close family members are supposed to avoid physical labor and sex after a death. When the mourning period ends, the family holds a ritual feast.
Social status is very important in both Rwanda and Burundi. Signs of status include a person's posture, body movements, and way of speaking.
Upper-class people are supposed to act with dignity and not show their emotions. In the past, most people had arranged marriages to someone of the same social class.
Today, Tutsi may choose the person they will marry. Group activities are more common than dating in couples.
However, some young Tutsis in the cities practice Western-style dating and go out to nightclubs. Traditional Tutsi houses were huts of wood, reeds, and straw shaped like beehives.
Around them were high hedges that served as fences. Modern Tutsi build rectangular houses with Western-style building materials. These houses have corrugated iron or tile roofs.
In the past, marriage in Rwanda and Burundi was based on the relations between the two families. Today most Tutsis choose the person they will marry.
In the past, Tutsi men and women wore robes brought in from the African coast. A woman's costume included a white robe and white headbands.
Today Western-style clothing is usually worn. Women wear dresses and scarves made from the printed cloth popular in East Africa.
Milk, butter, and meat are the most highly valued foods. However, people will only kill a cow on a special occasion.
Goat meat and goat milk are also eaten. However, they are eaten secretly because it is against Tutsi customs.
Tutsi in rural areas consume milk products, bananas, and sorghum beer. Meals are arranged around work schedules.
Alcoholic beverages are made from bananas and sorghum. People drink them on special occasions. No more than half of Tutsi in Rwanda and Burundi can read and write their native language.
A smaller number can read and write French. There are teacher training schools in Burundi. Both Rwanda and Burundi have at least one university.
Royal dancing and drumming groups performed for the kings of Rwanda and Burundi. For rituals, two dozen tall drums were placed around a central drum.
The drummers moved around the drums in a circle. Each one took a turn beating the central drum. This style of drumming is still practiced, and it has been recorded.
Singing, dancing, and drumming are important in rural life. People compose many kinds of songs — hunting songs, lullabies, and ibicuba songs praising cattle.
Cattle herding has always carried a higher status among the Tutsi than farming. In the past there was a special class of herders, called abashumba , who took care of the king's prize cattle inyambo.
A game called igisoro is popular with children and adults. It is played on a wooden board with holes for beads or stones. Players line up their pieces in rows and capture as many of their opponents' pieces as they can.
In other parts of Africa the game is known as mancala. Traditional crafts of Rwanda and Burundi include basket weaving, pottery, woodworking, metal working, and jewelry making.
Since the early s, the peoples of Rwanda and Burundi have lived through some of the worst violence in African history.
The killings are usually called ethnic warfare between the Hutu and Tutsi. However, victims have often been killed for their political beliefs, not just their ethnic group.
New York : Cambridge University Press, Twagilimana, Aimable. Hutu and Tutsi. Heritage Library of African Peoples.
New York : Rosen Publishing Group, Internet Africa Ltd. World Travel Guide. Since the late s, a group of Tutsi, who have their origin in the Great Lakes area of Africa Burundi and Rwanda , claim that this region was the home of a Hebraic community in ancient times, and claim a Jewish identity.
Their homeland, supposedly extending far beyond the regions where the Tutsi now reside, is called Havila by them, according to the name applied in Genesis to the legendary territory watered by the Pishon River.
The Tutsi claim to perpetuate either the pharaonic monotheism of the 18 th dynasty of Egypt or Moses' faith as transcribed in the Hebraic Torah.
The Hamitic-Semitic myth of the origins of these Tutsi, which was largely inspired by missionaries and colonists of the 19 th century, now appears to be strongly reinforced by the symbolic uses they make of Judaism.
Following their terrible suffering during the genocide of , these Tutsi have increasingly claimed a Jewish identity and describe their history as a microcosm of World Jewish history, evoking the common experience of persecution to give more weight to their Jewish identity claim.